SQL functions – Basics with EXAMPLES

sql-functions

SQL functions are used to perform mathematical, statistical, and logical operations.

CONCAT()

The CONCAT() function helps in adding two or more strings.

SYNTAX:
SELECT CONCAT(string_1, string_2) ;

EXAMPLE:

Here is the demo table that we will use:
Demo table name is DOCTORS.

Here we will concatenate ‘speciality’ column with ‘hospital’ column.

SELECT CONCAT(SPECIALITY,'  ', HOSPITAL)
FROM DOCTORS

You can also use ‘+’ sign to concatenate

SELECT SPECIALITY + ‘Care’
FROM DOCTORS

CONCAT_WS

This function helps in adding two or more strings together with a separator.

EXAMPLE:
SELECT CONCAT_WS(' dept. of ', SPECIALITY, HOSPITAL)
FROM DOCTORS;

UPPER()

The UPPER() function is used to convert string into upper-case.

SYNTAX:
SELECT UPPER(string)
EXAMPLE:
SELECT UPPER(SPECIALITY)
FROM DOCTORS ;

LOWER()

The LOWER() function is used to lower-case the string provided in the function argument.

SELECT LOWER(string)
EXAMPLE:

SELECT LOWER(SPECIALITY)
FROM DOCTORS

THANKS FOR READING!

Resource: https://learn.microsoft.com/en-us/sql/t-sql/functions/upper-transact-sql?view=sql-server-ver16

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